What is an alternate data stream

Many people have had a case where you downloaded a file from the Internet and it would not open. Files downloaded from the Internet can be automatically blocked by Windows, and we will tell you how to remove this blockage.

What are alternative data streams in Windows

To make it easier to understand, it is easier to first understand what a file is. A file is a certain space in which some data is stored, e.g. a text document in “notepad”.  An empty text file is a container of some kind and the contents are useful information displayed in a text editor or viewer. But sometimes a file may contain another type of information that is not displayed in a text editor, such as metadata.

This type of information is stored in what is called an Alternate Data Stream or ADS, which are attribute properties that NTFS thinks any file is made up of. Attributes in NTFS work on the same principle as Big Data. Attribute properties can be basic or alternate.

Mechanism for determining the network origin of files

How does your Windows system recognize that data was downloaded from the Internet? The point is that in the process of transferring it to the alternate thread Zone. Identifier, the data saved in your browser about the security zone was written to certain data. To check the presence of alternate threads in the WUModule.ps1 script received from the Internet, open a search box and go to the directory with the file and run the command: dir /r.

As a result, you will see the names of all files in the selected folder with their size in bytes and attributes. You can use PowerShell for more details.

Advantages and disadvantages of alternative streams


Threads give you the ability to store files on a disk in a way that no one can know they exist. You can also bypass the disk space limitation for your account that was set by the administrator. Even a guest can create such a thread in any file he has access to. In a thread, we can store as much data as will fit on the disk. However, an administrator with full privileges can delete the file and the thread.


Alternate streams can also pose a huge threat to your system – if it gets into the PC it can carry malicious components in the guise of normal documents, and work there completely undetected.

Application of alternative streams

ADS primarily serves to hide malicious programs or workloads.

Important notes:

1) Antiviruses instantly detect a loaded ADS on either process access or full scan. Fast file system scans do not analyze ADS

2) Applocker policies are very good with ADS functions

3) As it turns out, not too many admins are aware of ADS, so a hack in the registry or a command in the scheduler causes them dissonance when they don’t find the file “mscop:los.exe” in the specified folder using plain explorer

Data Stream Management System

In this article, we will look at the concept of data stream management, how it works, and the main features of the system. We also look at the data stream model and continuous query processing.

Data stream management issues

Today in computer networks, a very fast-growing number of network applications, the volume, and speed of network traffic. As a consequence, computer networks have several problems associated with the optimization of network traffic, network infrastructure, network performance, and more. An example of this would be a fairly common situation where the system’s incoming data exceeds the ability to process them.

When such a problem arises, if nothing is done, due to the limitation of incoming data, the size of the queues on the network lines will greatly increase and will eventually exceed the size of the buffers of the corresponding means of communication. When this happens, units of data arriving at nodes for which there is no free buffer space will be discarded and later retransmitted. This results in a problem where, as the incoming load increases, the actual throughput decreases and the transmission delays become extremely high.

The Data Stream Management System is designed precisely to prevent such failures and to facilitate uninterrupted streaming data exchange.

Features of data stream models

The concept of “data streams” is relatively recent, and the field is developing very rapidly.

A data flow is a sequence of ordered (timestamped or not) pieces of information continuously arriving in real-time. As a rule, data streams arrive at a very fast rate and it is very difficult to organize their arrival, and because of memory limitations, it becomes difficult to store streams as a whole.

 The data flow model is somewhat different from the usual relational data model, and has its features:

  • Data items in a stream arrive in real-time
  • The system has no control over the ordering of data stream elements
  • The streams are not limited in size
  • Once a data stream element has been processed, it is excluded from the stream or is archived, and it must be stored in memory for later retrieval

Principle of the data stream management system

DCMS differs slightly from traditional database management systems in that, in DCMS, you can make continuous queries concerning continuous data streams that enter and leave the system in real-time, with only data stored in RAM for the duration of the processing and various data, such as stock exchange data or network traffic, can enter the system.

The general principle of DCMS can be described as follows:

  1. The input monitor regulates the intensity of the input, and if the system cannot handle large incoming streams some data is omitted.
  2. Data is typically stored in three memory sections: temporary working memory, result memory, and static memory, where metadata is stored.
  3. Continuous queries are logged in the query repository, and along with that, one-time queries on the previous state of the thread can also be executed.

Room data sheets Example for Management

In this article, you will see detailed instructions on how to create a data room, and learn how this service can be useful to you and your company.

What the data room is for and how it works 

A virtual data room in simple terms means storage that exists in a private cloud or within an organization. The main task of this storage is to provide access to certain documents via a web interface for authorized users. When users interact with the storage all traffic is reliably encrypted and sometimes may be implemented the functions of DRM – digital restriction management system, in which case the data of the documents themselves are also encrypted. 

Why data rooms are needed?

Usually, the duties of a data room are:

  • Performing large-scale corporate transactions
  • Providing access to company reports at the time of accounting
  • Notifying investors about anything related to the business
  • To transmit data, users upload it to the cloud, set up access, and send the recipient a link. The process of sending data can also be automated.

Room data sheets are mostly used in the financial, construction, and design industries, as well as in law firms and retail businesses. These organizations often work with important data and need to ensure that the information is sent reliably.  

What to look for when creating a data room

1.The data room must fit your needs 

Because of the wide variety of data rooms, sometimes it becomes difficult to know which one is right for you. You need to choose a room based on these criteria: 

  • Security – you need to find a data room with a security program specifically designed for it
  • Ease of use – working with data rooms should not be inconvenient and the interface should be simple and efficient
  • Reporting – you must make sure that a detailed report of user actions is available to you so that you can see how long the recipients interacted with the sent document
  • Pricing – find out how plans change depending on how many users can create a data room 

2. Set access levels, permissions, and security settings 

Decide for yourself which of your employees you want to authorize.

  • Access control – you can make the file available to a certain number of people, or give your investors more discretion
  • Printing and uploading – allow recipients to upload and print documents, but keep in mind that after these processes the data room is no longer able to control these documents. For security purposes, apply a watermark to your documents

3. Gather the necessary documents and upload

After setting up all the functions in your repository, you need to move on to uploading documents. Check and edit sensitive information just in case. After a thorough check, you can move on to the step of inviting investors to a room that you have created especially for them.